UK & Eire Natural History Bloggers

Sunday, 26 February 2017

A whale of a time.

Hello and welcome after a very, very long time to my latest publication. I have recently spent two months on the road with my brother taking in some of the incredible sights Australia has to offer. It was truly a fantastic adventure and of course it was essential to try and spot some some of the iconic wildlife the country has to offer. We were treated to some memorable encounters but there was no way we could be prepared for one unforgettable morning en route to the Neptune Islands.

Memorable Neptune Islands.

When you think of Australia you may think of stunning beaches, breathtaking views, glorious weather and BBQ's a plenty and of course iconic wildlife. It was the native fauna that my brother and I were particularly keen on seeing and right at the top of our list of creatures to see was the infamous Great White Shark otherwise know as the White Pointer. To do this we decided we would need to take the plunge quite literally and make our way from Adelaide to Port Lincoln a city famous for its seafood and its cage diving with Great Whites. 
On the day of the dive we  awoke bleary eyed at the sound of our highly unsociable alarm clock, We had real hope that today could be the day we got ourselves a first hand view of one of the oceans most powerful predators. Once we met our fellow drivers and  instructors we were given a health and safety brief over breakfast. Everyones enthusiasm continued to grow as we boarded the boat for the two and a half journey towards the Neptune Islands. We were warned the final hour could be uncomfortable, however the first hour and a half travelling along the coast of the national park should be pleasant  and provide some excellent opportunities to spot some of the other wildlife found in  the area. It did not take long for that to come true. A  first fleeting glimpse of a common dolphin  proved to be the start of one the most memorable mornings of our lives. As we moved our way up the coast we came across Australian Pelicans, Ospreys one even sitting on a nest, White Bellied Sea Eagles and a colony of New Zealand Fur Seals. These endearing pinnipeds are one of the principle targets of the sharks and it was hard not to feel sympathy for them as took in the early morning sun temporarily at least out of reach of the danger awaiting their return to the water.

New Zealand Fur Seals

True to our instructors predictions once we started to hit the open water the waves started to get rougher and the chatting died down as people focused on keeping the horizon in their eye line and not regurgitating what they had for breakfast. With these two objectives firmly in mind further wildlife sightings seemed unlikely. That was until one of our instructors casually announced to us that there was a whale outside if anyone was interested. Que stampede as despite the increasingly rough conditions we staggered and swayed to our feet. Out on deck doing our finest Bambi on ice impressions we scanned the waves desperate not to have already missed the sighting. Suddenly an enormous shape in the form of a young Humpback Whale broke the waves. It nearly took our breath away a fleeting glimpse before disappearing back under the water. Seconds later it appeared again as we scrabbled for a better view and optimistically attemptesd to take pictures. Soon it became clear that we had been joined by numerous Common Dolphins and then by Albatross flying overhead. It honestly reminded me of a scene from the groundbreaking television series Blue Planet.  The young whale which our instructors theorised may have become lost on migration continued the pattern of fleeting glimpses for a couple of minutes before appearing in view one last time  going beneath the surface for good. All being well it got itself back on course for its migration in the process. No one was in any doubt how special the sighting was and it was further confirmed how lucky we had been when we learned that was only one of roughly half a dozen sightings in ten years. 

Our best image of the Humpback !

Look carefully towards the back. left hand side there is a Dolphin in the picture !

Another glimpse of the Humpback captured.

Ultimately the poor weather which had been in the area for the days prior to our arrival in Port Lincoln had an adverse effect on our opportunities to spot sharks. Despite the crews best efforts and hours of patience we were forced to accept defeat as evening approached and the sharks continued to hug the deepest layers of the ocean out of range of our surface to air breathing apparatus. On the way back on the boat as we sampled some of Australia's finest beer and reflected on the day and how incredibly lucky we had been despite drawing a blank with the sharks. And as the sun started to set we were treated to one last sighting as a  pair of dolphins broke the surface in tandem and disappeared into the distance. Days like that special day in Port Lincoln  create memories that will last a lifetime, thank you for reading !

Twitter @ReallyWildWykes

Monday, 16 May 2016

Happy Birthday Sir David.

Hello and welcome to my latest wildlife publication. There is only one way this piece can really focus, the extraordinary achievements of the great Sir David Attenborough. The great man recently celebrated his 90th birthday and incredibly shows no signs of calling time on an incredible career and thank goodness for that ! He has inspired many generations of people all around the globe to protect the planet and the incredible species with whom we share it. I have chosen to provide some of my favourite Attenborough moments whether they on screen or his iconic narrating. I’m sure you will enjoy them as much as I have and continue too.
There are also some fantastic findings coming recently emerging from the Chernobyl exclusion zone as well some thirty years after the disaster which you can read about below, demonstrating the true hardiness of the natural world. As always I hope you enjoy the blog.

The Capercaillie .

The Life of Birds is one of the earliest series I can remember presented by Sir David and this particular clip is always one that immediately comes to mind. 

Everyone loves a sloth! .

I think everyone has a soft spot for the endearing nature of sloths. This clip can only serve to reinforce that affection. 

Wolves hunting - Life of Mammals.

This is classic Sir David, there really is not much more to add.

What a wonderful world.

These images will never fail to amaze and of course the narrating once more is just fantastic even when covering song lyrics. There will never be another person who comes close to achieving what this legend has.

Wildlife unaffected by Chernobyl disaster.

A recent study by The University of Georgia led by James Beasley and assisted by Sarah Webster is the first remote camera scent station to be conducted inside the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone thirty years after the radiation outbreak. The findings supported previous research however its importance has been emphasised for its ability to provide visual proof of abundant wildlife in the area which is comprised of the ordering lands of Belarus and Ukraine.
Over a five week time frame, ninety four sites were surveyed using thirty cameras. Each camera was positioned on a tree or a similar object for a week long period and an enticing fatty acid scent placed nearby. The locations of the stations were approximately two miles apart to minimise the risk of animals visiting multiple stations in a twenty four hour period. Locations were chosen to make sure habitat variation and diverse ranges of radiation levels were accounted for in the surveying process.
The survey recorded all species visiting the stations and the regularity of which they did so. The study particular focused on carnivores however as Webster explains. “Carnivores are often in higher trophic levels of ecosystem food webs, so they are susceptible to bioaccumulation of contaminants".
In total the cameras recorded 14 mammal species the most frequent of which were; the wild boar, red fox, grey wolf and raccoon dog. These species all visited stations situated either inside or near to the highest level of radiation zones. As a result of these findings the study concluded areas with high levels of radiation do not impact on species populations, instead they vary in abundance depending on the location of natural resources.

That is all for this occasion , as usual thank you for reading I really hope you enjoyed it,

Tuesday, 17 November 2015

Wildlife news and Costa Rican adventures.

Hello and welcome to my latest wildlife publication and it has been a while. Life really has been busy over the last few months, particularly recently as I have just returned from a month volunteering in the Costa Rican rainforest. It was a truly incredible experience and the memories will certainly last a lifetime. I will go into a little more detail on that later however I would prefer to start off this piece with some eye catching wildlife related headlines from the past couple of months.  As always I hope you enjoy reading and feel free to give feedback.

A miracle in Guatemala.

The finca chiblac salamander and the long limed salamander have been offered a major lifeline having been lost to science for four decades and seeming doomed to extinction thanks primarily to alarming habitat loss. The change in fortune for the amphibians comes as a result of a land purchase by the World Land Trust and funders Fundación Para el Ecodesarrollo y la Conservación (FUNDAECO). The importance of Finca San Isidro was recognised back in 2009 while the finalisations of the transaction concluded in September of this year. The 800 acres secured will no doubt benefit many other species with FUNDAECO responsible for overseeing the conservation management of the area.

Kelp gull harassment could contribute to increased mortality in southern right whale calves.

Between 2003 and 2014, 600 southern right whale deaths were recorded at the Peninsula Valdes calving grounds, Argentina. This is an abnormally large number in comparison to calve fatalities recorded in other calving grounds over the same time frame. Kelp gulls feed on the blubber and skin of living whales and this form of harassment has also increased over time. This rise in recorded wounds on mother and young could prove to be an influencing factor in the increased mortality rate in young whales. Pairs attacked more frequently seem to spend depleted time nursing and resting and consequently may suffer from dehydration, poor thermoregulation and energy loss.

A new species of the highly venomous Australian death adder has been discovered in the Kimberley region of Australia.

Another highly venomous snake has been discovered in Australia in the form of the Kimberly death adder. The reptilian predator has the trademark diamond shaped head and stout body associated with snakes of the Acanthophis genus, while its identifying trait is the larger number of scales on its underbelly, which are unpigmented. With a sit and wait predatory lifestyle, unsuspecting prey such as lizards and frogs it seems would be well advised to be extra vigilant with this lethal predator poised ready to strike.

Burrowing lizards may provide the link to the emergence of snakes.

A 110 million year old fossil has been discovered in Brazil and would appear to suggest that snakes evolved from burrowing lizards. The skeleton was found to have long grasping toes which ruled out the possibility of snakes evolving from marine lizards.

BBC Wildlife Magazine, October 2015.

Cowbirds – A repeated menace.

Brown headed cowbirds are a brood parasite however research has found they still keep a watchful eye on their young. The study which lasted 21 years in Illinois observed prothonotary warblers raising cowbird chicks. Researchers discovered the probability of cowbirds returning to warbler nests increases if they successfully raised a cowbird chick previously. This provides the first documentation of brood parasites using experience to improve reproductive success.

BBC Wildlife Magazine, November, 2015.

One predator extinction can cause the extinction of other carnivores.

A study conducted by Exeter University has found the extinction of one predator can have disastrous knock on effects for other carnivore species. Forty square metre field cages were used to contain numerous aphid species and parasitoid wasps making up detailed food webs. Observations took place throughout spring and summer. When one species of wasp was removed, the direct consequence was a greater rate of extinction in other wasp species. The aphids targeted by the removed wasp species increased in number. Eventually this lead to other aphid species being crowded out making it harder for wasps specifically targeting them to find them thus leading to their eventual extinction.
This outcome led Dr Sanders an associate research fellow at Exeter University to say “Knowing how such extinction cascades can happen gives us a better understanding and helps us to predict when they might happen. If we want to protect an endangered carnivore species, for example, we might need to protect other predators around it, which is quite an important message”.

Costa Rican Adventures.

As I mentioned previously, I have recently returned from a month in the Costa Rican rainforest assisting on a range of scientific surveys. The last thing I want to do in this section is sound like a “travel bore” I would rather focus on the incredible wildlife I was lucky enough to see whilst on survey. At the bottom of this piece I have attached a link for more information on the project and the organisation themselves Global Vision International. I would thoroughly recommend taking a look, the wildlife is amazing however so are the people involved with this project, staff and fellow volunteers all of them are now my friends and thanks to them I have memories that will last a lifetime.

Thank goodness for flies.

Being grateful for flies may seem like a strange sentiment in the rainforest. The sheer numbers of them mean they have an uncanny ability to irritate anything unfortunate enough to cross their path. On one early morning however en route to conduct an incidentals survey the sheer annoyance they caused led us to experience a mind blowing sighting. Our survey leader made the decision to change route to the survey start point to try and avoid them seemingly unrelenting hordes of flies. A decision gratefully received as we left the coastal rainforest and headed out onto the beach from there we aimed to reconnect with the survey start point. As we walked we saw jaguar tracks and I remembered that I was still without a photo of them and so out came the camera. Barely had I finished when our survey leader instructed us not to move. He had immediately seen something we hadn’t well camouflaged even in the intensifying sunlight crouching behind a large group of vultures. In front of us, approximately 200 metres away was a jaguar, a male and a big one at that. My heart pounded this was an experience I never dared think possible. There he was however relaxed, feeding on a freshly killed turtle with the vultures around him acting as a mere inconvenience. Despite being visible with the naked eye, it was binoculars that really did him justice, not just in his beauty but also his power and authority that oozed out of him with every step he took. We watched for ten minutes with brown pelicans flying overhead while he fed, stopping only occasionally to chase away vultures and to check us out. Even at the distance we were away, a stare like his certainly can make you feel small and powerless very quickly. Eventually he retreated into the undergrowth, presumably to sleep off his meal while we were left awestruck and pinching ourselves as to whether or not what we just saw really happened. 
To even hope to see another jaguar would have been ambitious at best seemingly hopeless at worst. Less than 24 hours had passed however when, whilst on a jag walk where signs of jaguar predation, activity and turtle tracks are recorded, did lightening strike twice. Once more our survey leader spotted the stunning predator. This time a young jaguar again on a kill and on this occasion the sight of people was enough to alarm it into breaking into cover within seconds, a brief glimpse but something truly special.

A long way away, the picture looks better in larger format he is there I promise !

Jaguar footprints, little did we know what was in store for us.
                                          A great river sighting.

Going out on bird surveys out on the water was certainly a prospect that excited me as particularly growing up I had been an avid bird watcher. As part of our training and preparation for the surveys we were taken out on a boat to see first hand the species we would be recording. We saw a range of species from northern jacanas to the magnificent bare throated tiger heron however it was a different heron species that proved to be the highlight of the day. Thanks to an incredible piece of spotting from another volunteer, our attention was drawn to a stunning boat billed heron, cautious at first using the vegetation before appearing out in the open allowing us a sighting in all its glory especially the trademark boat bill. It was a day to remember and certainly my favourite bird sighting.

Boat billed heron, stunning.

                                                 Amazing amphibians.

Think of Costa Rica and a few species immediately come to mind, macaws, various turtles, jaguars, sloths and the red eyed tree frog the latter of which was most definitely on my list of species to see. Night surveys never failed to capture the imagination and opened up a whole new world of weird and wonderful species and amongst many memorable moments included a sighting of a beautiful but very venomous coral snake. It was on a night survey where myself, the survey leader and my fellow volunteers were treated to an encounter with one of Costa Rica’s most iconic species. The shine of our torches showed off the red eyed tree frogs stunning colouration and having observed the amphibian resting on a leaf, we left it to continue with its night of hunting delighted at our good fortune.  

An icon of Costa Rican wildlife and a wonderful animal. 

The scarlet webbed tree frog was a frequent encounter on surveys. 

                                        A highly venomous encounter.

I have always had a fascination with snakes I’m not sure exactly why but even at primary school age I could rattle off numerous highly venomous snakes and key facts about them. Needless to say the prospect of seeing the most venomous snake in Central America – the fer der lance was most certainly a prospect that intrigued me. It was again an incidentals survey which provided the stage for an unforgettable encounter.
The survey itself had been relatively quiet and with only a few metres remaining this looked unlikely to change. Around the nest corner however things most certainly did, our survey leaders arm shot out in front of us stopping us from walking any further. Just as well he did for lying coiled in the path in front of us resting, hard to spot with its superb camouflage was a juvenile fer der lance. It took a few seconds for what we were looking at to sink in. This was one of the most venomous snakes in the world seemingly undisturbed by our presence which was needless to say a healthy distance away. We stood, we watched, we took pictures and we admired its beauty. The snake was not all bothered by us, it is important to remember venom is a precious resource to snakes in nearly all cases they don’t want to use it unless they have to. We were never in danger of taking a “hit” and when we left the snake was as relaxed as when we arrived, a perfect encounter.

The most venomous snake in Central America.
Eyelash palm pit viper, highly venomous and not adverse to coming into camp, one was found in the shower!
                   A turtle experience.

Prior to this trip my only experiences with green turtles had come through television and literature. Nothing can you prepare you for their size and certainly not for the humbling effort it takes for them to lay their eggs. So graceful in water, their size works against them on land as they haul themselves up the beach leaving themselves extremely vulnerable to predation from jaguars lurking in the shadows. The numerous carcasses of those who didn’t make it are testament to that.
On my first night walk my I had a real mix of nervous excitement, mainly excitement I knew seeing a turtle for the first time was going to be amazing. I was not wrong myself and the other volunteers were able to see the entire nesting process it was incredible, truly incredible. We assisted with the recording off the scientific data and for as long as I live I will never forget giving a turtle a body check searching for any abnormalities it was thoroughly worth getting a mouthful of sand having failed to dodge the spay ! Neither will I forget the intimate moments of counting the eggs being laid having an experience like that, that’s a privilege. Watching a turtle returning to sea having done all she can for the next generation is a reminder as if I needed one of why I love this truly incredible natural world.

We stood over this green turtle  hatchling along with its siblings while  vultures circled above.  

A critically endangered hawksbill makes his way to sea, fingers crossed for him.
I have so many memories I could write seemingly forever, but then I would become what I feared a travel bore and no one wants that! I will leave it on this note however, if you feel like you would enjoy a howler monkey alarm clock, love wildlife, love hard work, want to meet amazing people from all over the world and can live without home comforts then this may well an adventure for you too.
I really hope you’ve enjoyed reading and thank you for doing so, all the best,

Twitter @Reallywildwykes

Email –

Friday, 6 March 2015

Recent wildlife news.

Hello and welcome to my latest blog. I hope you are all well and are having a good week so far and have had some great wildlife encounters. Recently I was privileged enough to see a particularly fearless rook mobbing a pair of  buzzards. Although the action occurred a fair distance away the bird of preys irritation was clear, regularly turning to expose its talons towards the corvid. Despite the risks, the harassment only ended once the rook was satisfied the threat had diminished. It was a fleeting yet fascinating glimpse  into the challenges faced by both predators and prey. As always I hope you enjoy reading the blog and any feedback is welcome !
Amazing Owls.

I recently watched Natural World Super -Powered Owls. If you have not already done so I would highly recommend giving this a watch. The images captured are quite simply stunning and a pleasure to watch !

Wildlife News.

Jerdon's  babbler rediscovered. 

A recent report has emerged which reveals the previously thought extinct Jerdon's babbler is in fact alive and well despite having not been sighted in Myanmar since 1941. The discovery was made by a team consisting of members from Myanmar's Nature and Wildlife Conservation Division and the National University of Singapore.
The find took place in  Mynamar during the early summer of 2014 while scientists where surveying an area around a now abandoned agricultural station. Also present in this area was a moderately sized patch of grassland, a favored habitat in years gone by for the species. Having heard the species call, the team then played back a recording and were soon presented with a sighting of an adult Jerdon's babbler. Over the next two days, many more individuals were discovered in the near area. This presented successful opportunities to obtain blood samples and photographs and brought to an end the belief this species had fallen victim to extinction.  
Wildlife Conservation Society. "'Extinct' bird rediscovered: Last seen in 1941." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 5 March 2015.

New research on ocean debris continues to produce shocking results.
Almost seven hundred species have now been recorded to have come across man- made debris. This resulted  in a total of 44,000 animals and organisms around the world  either becoming entangled or swallowing waste say researchers from Plymouth University. Of all reported cases plastic was responsible for ninety two percent. Incidents were most frequently  reported off North America's north and east coasts, Australia and Europe. 
Of all entanglements recorded, plastic rope and netting were the main culprits with species most affected being northern fulmars, northern right whales and green, loggerhead and hawksill turtles. In reported cases of ingestion, plastic was again found to be at the forefront of the problem. Green turtles and northern fulmars again were high on the list of worst affected species.  Other species seriously suffering as a result included the greater shearwater, Californian sea lion,  Atlantic puffin, and Laysan albatross.

Findings shed new light on fearsome predators. 

Crocodilians have a playful side research by Vladimir Dinets has revealed. Dinets who has studied crocodiles and alligators for ten years has discovered they have fun engaging in playful behavior with objects, other crocodiles and other species. His results came as a result of his own observations and those of others conducted through informal surveys. 
Of the different categories of play; play with objects, locomotive play and social play play with objects was the most frequently recorded. This included playing with wooden balls, ceramic items and prey items. Locomotive prey included crocodiles surfing waves and young alligators repeatedly sliding down mud banks. Examples of social play included a crocodile giving its lifelong mate a piggyback and baby alligators riding on the backs of adults. Dinet also observed a young alligator playing with a river otter.
 Odour based camouflage.
The harlequin filefish lives and feeds on acropora coral and consequently smells so similar to it the scent acts as a camouflage against predators. The smell of the filefish is so convincing, it has also been found to smell like home for crabs used to inhabiting the acropora coral. This is the first occurrence of diet based camouflage being utilised
BBC Wildlife March 2015 
Justice at last.

Over a six year period he became implicated in the slaughter of nineteen rhinos now after two years on the run Rajkumar Praja has been captured the WWF has stated. After having an Interpol arrest warrant put on him he was tracked down in Malaysia and extradited to his native Nepal. He know looks likely to face a fifteen year prison sentence for the rhino poaching  and trafficking rhino horns.

So some good news to finish which is very nice! I will nether even come close to being able to understand  the sheer barbarity required to conduct these obscene crimes. Thank goodness in this case at least a main perpetrator has been brought to justice. That concludes my publication for this occasion and thank you once again for reading !
All the best, 
George Wykes
Twitter - ReallyWildWykes
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Friday, 23 January 2015

Wildlife news and discoveries.

Hello and a belated happy new year to you all ! I hope you  had a great Christmas and spent plenty of time with your friends and family. Some of you may be wandering why there has been such a long gap between this and my last post. Well, the primary reason has been the result of an unfortunate incident wood chopping. Although this allowed me to sport a very impressive bandage for a while and able to tell a tale of woe to tell anyone who would listen, it also rather incapacitated my left hand and made typing far trickier ! Anyway, stitches removed and now over my traumatic ordeal, I'm back and keen to share with you some awesome wildlife news ! As always I appreciate feedback so feel free to comment and I hope you enjoy reading about the latest incredible findings in the natural world as much as I did. 

India's Tiger population on the increase.

Despite the sickening illegal trade in tiger parts still present as one of the primary threats to the worlds tigers, new research  on India's tiger numbers are encouraging. Between 2006 and 2014, an increase of 60% in population mean India is now home 2,226 individuals at the time of research. This makes up more than half of the worlds tiger population. This  increase in tiger numbers has been credited as the result of improved protection and management in tiger reserves and tiger protected areas.
To access full article

Cambodia home to new species of legless amphibian. 

In the Cardamom Mountains of Cambodia, Ichthyophis cardamomensis of the amphibian order caecilian, has been discovered. This new species is only the second caecilian species now known to inhabit Cambodia. In tropical and subtropical areas, caecilians feed on a variety of invertebrates, while they themselves are a key prey item for the red tailed pipe snake. 
The Cardamom Mountains which are home to 80 species threatened with extinction, have shown a glimpse into a biodiversity largely unknown to science. This new discovery further illustrates their importance to the natural world. The region is under threat however as a result of logging, land concessions and varying forms of habitat destruction. I am sure I am not alone in finding the thought of losing this ecological gem deeply disturbing.

To access the full article

How to deter an Elephant.

There can be little doubt that elephants are truly majestic animals. With humbling family bonds and remarkable intelligence, they are a perfect example of nature at its most magnificent. They can and often do however spell disaster for farmers in Africa and Asia who can suffer devastating losses as a result of the damage inflicted to their crops. Tragically, human loss of life also occurs with locals often unwittingly startling elephants with dreadful consequences. There are a variety of measures now in place to deter elephants from encroaching into areas of human habitation, here are a couple of my favorites.

Recorded tiger vocalization has been found to prevent elephants from entering crop fields. This comes as a result of elephants natural caution towards tigers as their calves have been recorded as prey items of the big cats. Research conducted in 2010 situated around two areas in southern India, found that when elephants heard the growls of captive tigers and leopards as a consequence of tripping an infra red beam, they would react by silently leaving the area. Research is now ongoing into creating commercially available  devices for farmers in the near future.  

Chili as a deterrent.

Capasaicin, the chemical responsible for the heat in chilis, has been found to cause elephants to cough, sneeze and eventually retreat research has found.  In Africa, some farmers are using this to their advantage by planting chili plants around their crops which then serve as a source of extra income. The Elephant Pepper Development Trust now teaches South African farmers to use rope fences which have engine oil and chili smeared on them and mount them with cow bells to act as a deterrent to elephants.
In Asia, farmers are also using chili as a way to deter elephants away from their crops. For example, in southern India farmers employ a mix of red chili pods, tobacco, hay and seeds encased in newspaper to cause a foul smelling smoke. Experts however warn of the risks of unguarded fields and advise chili to be used in combination with other deterrents rather than as an isolated form.

To read more of the deterrents being developed to reduce the risk of human- elephant conflict follow this link -

And speaking of Elephants......

Courtesy of GPS, it has been found that elephants can find rainfall from 100km away.  There is no definitive explanation for their ability to do this, but scientists believe  it may be they are able to hear the low ultrasound created by thunderstorms. 
BBC Wildlife January 2015.

Remote control Eels.

Not only do electric eels use their incredible predatory adaptions to stun their prey, new research has revealed their prey have further reasons to fear their underwater nemesis. While searching for their hidden target, eels produce pulses of electricity which are able to attach the prey species nervous system, causing involuntary twitches and subsequently reveal its position.

BBC Wildlife February 2015. 

Life Story.

Anyone who watched this series will surely consider it a privilege, I certainly did, it was truly breathtaking. I've attached the trailer for the series below to give a sample of the incredible wildlife behavior captured on film during the series.

That is all for this occasion and thank you for reading. I will be shortly producing a new blog dedicated to paleontology.  If that is of interest to you, your support would be much appreciated ! Have a great weekend,
Twitter- reallywildwykes. 

Saturday, 11 October 2014

World of dinosaurs.

What is your first thought when someone mentions the word dinosaur ? Perhaps it is the image of the infamous Diplodocus skeleton which cannot fail to attract your attention on entering the Natural History Museum, London. Maybe thanks to Spielberg’ s Jurassic Park it’s the prospect of the dinosaur of your nightmares the Velociraptor terrorising anything unfortunate enough to cross its path. For me I suppose it’s a mixture of Spielberg’s master class, many trips to natural history museums, hours of being glued to text books and in my younger years playing with many, many toy dinosaurs, rarely a trip out went by without another being added to the collection. And it was recently reading text on some fascinating new discoveries in the world of palaeontology which have provided the inspiration for the core of this latest blog. Such is my passion for the subject that after this I have decided to include a section dedicated to this field in every publication following this. As always I hope you enjoy it.

       Reign of the dinosaurs.

Dinosaurs first appeared in the form of Protodinosaurs some 252.3 million years ago after the Permian- Triassic extinction earlier than previously thought recent research has revealed. Tracks found in Poland and spreading across three ecosystems and four million years were discovered close to the village of Stryczowice. The evidence suggests however that these dinosaurs would of likely been smaller than a domestic cat with the largest tracks measuring 40 millimeters. Dinosaurs domination of the planet lasted until the late Cretaceous period 65 million years ago where a mass extinction event paved the way for mammals to assert themselves and begin a new reign of domination.

           Characteristics of a dinosaur.

·     Dinosaurs are divided into two predominant groups, Saurischian meaning lizard hipped or  Ornithischian meaning bird hipped species.
·     Erect leg posture as a result of cylindrical femoral head which fitted into a perforated hip socket and a hinge- jointed ankle.
·         All species were hind limb dominant.
·         Tail in most cases held off the ground.
·         Scales present on body which formed a non overlapping mosaic pattern.
·         Dinosaurs would often reach sexual maturity before growth had been completed.

New dinosaur species discovered: Torvosaurus gurneyi

Were dinosaurs warm blooded?

In recent years the preconception of dinosaurs being cold blooded like their modern day cousins has been thrown into doubt as a growing list of evidence to the contrary continues to build up.
Dinosaurs it was argued had to have been cold blooded as a result of belonging to the archosaur group the same group in which their close relative the crocodile also belongs . Professor Roger Seymour however in his study Dinosaurs, endothermy and blood pressure, stated that as a result of their long necks, high blood pressure would have been essential to get blood into their long necks. He also added that to successfully control the flow of blood a four chambered heart very much like those found in mammals and birds today would have been required. Seymour also believes that all archosaurs began as warm blooded creatures and crocodiles switched to a cold blooded life style as a result of their sit and wait behaviour.  
Counter arguments to the suggestion have included the positioning of sauropod necks. It has been suggested that if their necks remained horizontal there would have been little need for high blood pressure to ensure blood reached the brain.
Inertial homeothermy a system where animals are able to slowly warm up and cool down it has been suggested could have been employed by dinosaurs. It has however been counter argued that not all dinosaurs were large and even large dinosaurs began life small.
Further research from Seymour adds more weight to the warm blooded argument. In 2011 he compared the nutrient foreman – holes in thigh bones where blood is supplied to the bone of mammals and modern day reptiles. His hypothesis was the more active the animal the more blood needed to be supplied. He was proven correct the holes were indeed larger in mammals. He then compared these to dinosaur bones and found surprising results. The nutrient foreman found in dinosaur bones was greater than those found in mammals. This meant dinosaurs must have had to of had a high metabolic rate. Velociraptor and T.rex add further weight to this argument with findings revealing they were capable of top speeds of 38km and 29 km per hour respectively.

A team from the Catalan Institute of Palaeontology have also revealed significant evidence pointing in the direction of dinosaurs being cold blooded when they discovered lag lines on the bones of mammals. Lag lines are caused when environmental conditions are not favourable for growth and energy is instead used for the pure survival of the animal. A similar principle also occurs in trees. As these marks had been found on both dinosaurs and modern day reptiles it had been assumed dinosaurs were cold blooded. The finding of these marks on mammal bones proves this piece of evidence at least cannot be used to support the cold blooded theory.

And so with the list of evidence in favour of proving these creatures to be warm blooded, it would seem unless a finding of equal significance is found to contradict these new revelations, it would seem what we thought we knew about dinosaurs continues to be thrown into doubt.  

Dinosaur vocalisation.

A long trachea would have enabled long necked dinosaurs it is theorised to transmit low frequency noises over a large distance. It is also thought the nasal passages  found in the crests of duck billed dinosaurs known as hadrosaurs would have resonated at low frequencies and as a result may have been able to create low frequency noises.

The preconception of forests reverberating to the sounds of dinosaur vocalisation however could well be proven to be inaccurate. Hadrosaurs for example may have been able to produce low frequency sounds, but scientists are looking to modern day reptiles for answers to how these sounds could have been produced without the need for vocal chords. King cobras are shown as an example for how this could work, they possess soft tissue resonating chambers, capable of amplifying frequencies and consequently making hisses sound like growls. It has been suggested hadrosaurs could have also been capable of this.
And further evidence increases the likelihood of the range of dinosaur vocalisation being limited. Dinosaurs originate from the bird linage of divergence and so it could have been presumed they would possess the same vocal characteristics as birds today. This has been proven to be incorrect however with no evidence of vocal chords in either the earliest birds in the Mesozoic era or in their dinosaur relatives. Dinosaurs may have developed vocal chords independently of birds however there is no clear cut evidence of this. Dr Senter concludes as a result of this evidence that dinosaurs like their modern day relatives would most likely of hissed when disturbed and would have been unable to properly vocalise.

Evidence of dinosaur battles.

Therapod dinosaurs due to the predatory lifestyle they led are likely to be found with evidence of battle wounds. Two Allosaurus skeletons reveal evidence of the hardships of living a predatory lifestyle. One was found with injuries too its ribs, tail, shoulder, feet, toes and serious infections to its foot, finger and a rib. The severity of some of the injuries observed mean it is possible they were a factor in the predators death. In another skeleton an Allosaur tail suffered an injury suspected to be caused by the spike of a stegosaur. A famous Tyrannosaur skeleton named “Sue” revealed serious injuries caused by conflict with another Tyrannosaur and were found to reveal evidence of successful healing.
The fossil record also shows evidence of battles where herbivores successful repelled their attacker. A Triceratops horn was found to have been bitten off by a tyrannosaur however there was evidence of healing which would imply a successful outcome for the herbivore. Sauropod and Hadrosaur remains have also show evidence of healing after encounters with predators. The spikes of Stegosaurs have been found broken and damaged again with evidence of healing confirming these would have been used to fight.

Dinosaur facts bullet points.

·         700 species of dinosaur have been found 100 of those in Britain.
·        The largest dinosaur was Argentinosaurus, measuring in at 37 metres from head to tail, it was the length of a Boeing 737. It would have needed up to 100,000 calories per day.
·      The infamously small arms of Tyrannosaurus Rex could have either been used for holding prey, or if they had feathers as a courtship display.
·         The second toe of the Velociraptor was not used for slicing prey as first thought, instead it was used for gripping and pinning .
·         It has been theorised the tail of the Diplodocus may have been used as a weapon.
·         The head crest of Cryolophosaurus had the ability to flush blood as a result the colour of the crest would change and would have been used to either warn of danger or sexual availability.
·         The longest carnivorous dinosaur is thought to be Spinosaurus it is estimated it could have reached lengths of up to 18 metres.

New species of dinosaurs are discovered with incredible frequency, which makes the thought of what is still out there unknown to us waiting to be found so exciting. Here a new species has within the last few days been discovered in Venezuela.

I really hope you found this blog of interest, thank you for reading thank you for reading George :)

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